Always Have Boogers? Main Causes and Reasons Why!

Boogers are a fact of life; they come into the world with you and typically show up from time to time. For some people that time to time is more like hour to hour. To understand what you can do about boogers you have to understand what causes them and what they are.

What is a Booger?

A booger is the hardened mucus that coats your nose and throat. The point of mucus is to protect you from the dust, dirt and debris that are breathed in. The mucus traps all the debris that you breathe in through your nose and surrounds it so it does not get into your nose. The mucus hardens around the debris and it becomes a booger.

What Causes Excessive Boogers

If you always have boogers than it is very likely that you are breathing in something that you are allergic to. The mucus looks at the speck of whatever it is that you are breathing as a potential health liability, more mucus is formed by your body to protect from the intruder. When you always have boogers than your body is doing its job, if you are an allergy sufferer.

Colds and Infections

You will also produce a large number of boogers when you have a cold or any kind of infection in your sinuses. You will always have boogers if you do not get rid of your sinus infection or are exposed to allergens regularly.

Dehydration

Mucus needs fluids to function properly, if you do not hydrate yourself regularly than you will always have boogers. The mucus in your nose will dry up and leave you feeling crusty.

If you always have boogers and can not figure out the cause you may want to consider allergy tests.



Source by Jane Sawyers

If You Thought You Missed The Internet Profit Revolution Try CryptoCurrency

When most people think of cryptocurrency they might as well be thinking of cryptic currency. Very few people seem to know what it is and for some reason everyone seems to be talking about it as if they do. This report will hopefully demystify all the aspects of cryptocurrency so that by the time you’re finished reading you will have a pretty good idea of what it is and what it’s all about.

You may find that cryptocurrency is for you or you may not but at least you’ll be able to speak with a degree of certainty and knowledge that others won’t possess.

There are many people who have already reached millionaire status by dealing in cryptocurrency. Clearly there’s a lot of money in this brand new industry.

Cryptocurrency is electronic currency, short and simple. However, what’s not so short and simple is exactly how it comes to have value.

Cryptocurrency is a digitized, virtual, decentralized currency produced by the application of cryptography, which, according to Merriam Webster dictionary, is the “computerized encoding and decoding of information”. Cryptography is the foundation that makes debit cards, computer banking and eCommerce systems possible.

Cryptocurrency isn’t backed by banks; it’s not backed by a government, but by an extremely complicated arrangement of algorithms. Cryptocurrency is electricity which is encoded into complex strings of algorithms. What lends monetary value is their intricacy and their security from hackers. The way that crypto currency is made is simply too difficult to reproduce.

Cryptocurrency is in direct opposition to what is called fiat money. Fiat money is currency that gets its worth from government ruling or law. The dollar, the yen, and the Euro are all examples. Any currency that is defined as legal tender is fiat money.

Unlike fiat money, another part of what makes crypto currency valuable is that, like a commodity such as silver and gold, there’s only a finite amount of it. Only 21,000,000 of these extremely complex algorithms were produced. No more, no less. It can’t be altered by printing more of it, like a government printing more money to pump up the system without backing. Or by a bank altering a digital ledger, something the Federal Reserve will instruct banks to do to adjust for inflation.

Cryptocurrency is a means to purchase, sell, and invest that completely avoids both government oversight and banking systems tracking the movement of your money. In a world economy that is destabilized, this system can become a stable force.

Cryptocurrency also gives you a great deal of anonymity. Unfortunately this can lead to misuse by a criminal element using crypto currency to their own ends just as regular money can be misused. However, it can also keep the government from tracking your every purchase and invading your personal privacy.

Cryptocurrency comes in quite a few forms. Bitcoin was the first and is the standard from which all other cryptocurrencies pattern themselves. All are produced by meticulous alpha-numerical computations from a complex coding tool. Some other cryptocurrencies are Litecoin, Namecoin, Peercoin, Dogecoin, and Worldcoin, to name a few. These are called altcoins as a generalized name. The prices of each are regulated by the supply of the specific cryptocurrency and the demand that the market has for that currency.

The way cryptocurrency is brought into existence is quite fascinating. Unlike gold, which has to be mined from the ground, cryptocurrency is merely an entry in a virtual ledger which is stored in various computers around the world. These entries have to be ‘mined’ using mathematical algorithms. Individual users or, more likely, a group of users run computational analysis to find particular series of data, called blocks. The ‘miners’ find data that produces an exact pattern to the cryptographic algorithm. At that point, it’s applied to the series, and they’ve found a block. After an equivalent data series on the block matches up with the algorithm, the block of data has been unencrypted. The miner gets a reward of a specific amount of cryptocurrency. As time goes on, the amount of the reward decreases as the cryptocurrency becomes scarcer. Adding to that, the complexity of the algorithms in the search for new blocks is also increased. Computationally, it becomes harder to find a matching series. Both of these scenarios come together to decrease the speed in which cryptocurrency is created. This imitates the difficulty and scarcity of mining a commodity like gold.

Now, anyone can be a miner. The originators of Bitcoin made the mining tool open source, so it’s free to anyone. However, the computers they use run 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The algorithms are extremely complex and the CPU is running full tilt. Many users have specialized computers made specifically for mining cryptocurrency. Both the user and the specialized computer are called miners.

Miners (the human ones) also keep ledgers of transactions and act as auditors, so that a coin isn’t duplicated in any way. This keeps the system from being hacked and from running amok. They’re paid for this work by receiving new cryptocurrency every week that they maintain their operation. They keep their cryptocurrency in specialized files on their computers or other personal devices. These files are called wallets.

Let’s recap by going through a few of the definitions we’ve learned:

• Cryptocurrency: electronic currency; also called digital currency.

• Fiat money: any legal tender; government backed, used in banking system.

• Bitcoin: the original and gold standard of crypto currency.

• Altcoin: other cryptocurrencies that are patterned from the same processes as Bitcoin, but with slight variations in their coding.

• Miners: an individual or group of individuals who use their own resources (computers, electricity, space) to mine digital coins.

o Also a specialized computer made specifically for finding new coins through computing series of algorithms.

• Wallet: a small file on your computer where you store your digital money.

Conceptualizing the cryptocurrency system in a nutshell:

• Electronic money.

• Mined by individuals who use their own resources to find the coins.

• A stable, finite system of currency. For example, there are only 21,000,000 Bitcoins produced for all time.

• Does not require any government or bank to make it work.

• Pricing is decided by the amount of the coins found and used which is combined with the demand from the public to possess them.

• There are several forms of crypto currency, with Bitcoin being first and foremost.

• Can bring great wealth, but, like any investment, has risks.

Most people find the concept of cryptocurrency to be fascinating. It’s a new field that could be the next gold mine for many of them. If you find that cryptocurrency is something you’d like to learn more about then you’ve found the right report. However, I’ve barely touched the surface in this report. There is much, much more to cryptocurrency than what I’ve gone through here.



Source by Wael Rajab

How to Avoid Money Management Mistakes in Real Money Poker

If you are not too careful with your knowledge of online poker rules and poker money management, it could cost you a lot of money wastage. If you’re playing poker, especially the online ones, you’ll have to have at least a basic knowledge of managing your poker money so that you’ll be able to save your financial stability. There are a lot of common mistakes that poker players made when they play the poker games online, hence increasing their chances of losing more dramatically.

If you’d like to manage your poker money, there are a few general guidelines that you must adhere to. First of all while you’re playing poker, the most important thing that you’ll need to watch out for is your bankroll. The bankroll is basically your money that you may either earn or lose during the poker game session. Naturally, the game of poker is a volatile game in which the players will have higher chances in losing within a short period of time. So in order for you to succeed in your poker game and last longer, you must make sure that you manage your bankroll and always keep an eye on it.

Never be too greedy and eager to earn prizes as it’ll potentially lead you in losing more money quickly. It’s better if you take things slow and one at a time as the pace of the game may vary. Next, manage the size of your bankroll. Typically for any poker game players to be safe, it’s highly recommended that they have at least $200 to $300 big bets at any level that they’re currently playing at. Basically, you’ll need to have at least $200 plus worth of money as your bet if you’re playing the $0.50 per 1 poker games (calculating bankrolls method).

Always remember to calculate the whole cost of your poker game and how much money it’ll require you to invest in the game. Use the ‘calculating bankrolls’ method before you start playing in a poker game. The method is normally influenced by the poker player’s game of choice, and also his or her background/ type of person. The ‘type of person’ basically means ‘what kind of player that you are’. For instance, you won’t need as much money to play a game when you’re involved in a lot of pots if you’re a tight player.

The pace of the game and the situation really depends on the individual’s style of gameplay. The more aggressive as a player that you are, the more likely you are to lose a lot more real money in poker in a snap of a finger. This is also one of the reasons as to why an aggressive player will need a lot more backup plan and money due to his/ her playing style. Make sure that you don’t do these; the two of the most common mistakes that poker players make include chasing their losses by moving up to bigger games and advancing too quickly.



Source by Damira Gerasimova

Motivation Doesn’t Last, Nor Do You Want It To – Here’s What Does

Examine Your Urges

Motivation doesn’t last because it diminishes the moment challenges arise.

Humans are emotional creatures and while we have highly sophisticated forebrains, our actions are dictated by our limbic brain.

Your actions are driven by unconscious desires that dwell deep in your reptilian brain, comprising of the brain stem and cerebellum. Its purpose centres on physical survival and the homoeostasis of your body.

Its primary function is to preserve your survival and control movement, breathing, reproduction and other basic survival needs.

It controls unconscious actions and is resistant to change. Even when starting a new habit, your attempts can be hijacked by the reptilian brain.

The thinking brain accounts for approximately 20% of your decision-making which explains why behavioural change is often met with resistance.

Most people live on autopilot and are dictated by their instincts which means the reptilian brain is in command.

The problem occurs when you give in to gratification instead of engaging the logical mind to examine these urges.

Motivation doesn’t last because it is a fleeting incident repeatedly commandeered by your unconscious desires, even despite your best intentions.

I liken it to having someone place their hand on your back to keep you moving forward. If they remove their hand, you are likely to lose your motivation.

It was the late American motivational speaker Jim Rohn who once said: “Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going.” He knew that motivation alone is not enough to sustain your efforts.

I believe Sound Habits + A Compelling WHY are two important components that will help you achieve your goals and success.

The HOW, the WHAT and the WHY

I’ve coached hundreds of people over the past decade, ranging from athletes to CEOs and the one key factor that often comes up in coaching sessions is the subject of feelings.

People often say they don’t feel motivated to act or commit to a habit because they are responding to their emotional brain and give in to its demands.

I like author and doctor Kyra Bobinet’s perspective in her book Well Designed Life: 10 Lessons In Brain Science & Design Thinking For A Mindful, Healthy, & Purposeful Life: “When people say things like “I need to get motivated,” what I think they really are saying is “I want to feel stronger about doing this, and I hope that will get me to do it.” They are saying motivation, but really, they are talking about emotion.”

So if motivation doesn’t last, what does?

I’m glad you asked.

What is required is a powerful WHY?

According to motivational author Simon Sinek, many people and organisations focus on the HOW and WHAT as their primary motivators.

In his Golden Circle principle, the HOW and WHAT occupy the outer rings of the circle, while the WHY fills the centre.

The WHAT is the role of the neocortex which is responsible for rational, analytical thought and language.

The HOW is governed by the limbic brain, responsible for your feelings, trust and loyalty. It governs human behaviour and decision-making and has no capacity for language.

The WHY is ruled by the limbic brain and handles intuition and decision-making.

What this all means is when you have a commanding WHY you are likely to associate powerful emotions to your actions that leads to a greater chance of success.

Authors Jeff Brown and Mark Fenske explain in The Winner’s Brain: 8 Strategies Great Minds Use to Achieve Success how to better manage your emotions instead of allowing them to dictate your life: “The difference between a Winner’s Brain and an average brain is that Winners make a point of directing their emotions in productive ways. They don’t simply spew out emotions in an uncontrolled or thoughtless manner; they are highly sensitive to their emotional responses (even the negative ones) so that emotions can make positive contributions to current and long-term goals.”

To highlight an example, I’m currently working with a young lady who is a woman’s soccer referee. Jane (not her real name) was injured over 12 months ago when she rolled her ankle on a dry section of a soccer pitch during a game.

Whilst her injury did not require surgery, she suffered a grade II tear to the ligaments in her ankle which required twelve months of rehabilitation.

In our first meeting, I asked Jane what she enjoyed about being a soccer referee (WHY?). This was difficult for her to answer, and I had to probe further.

However, by the end of the session she stated her motivation to be a soccer referee stemmed from her childhood memories of going to soccer games with her father. She could recall the smell of the grass and experienced a flood of emotions as she recounted the experience to me.

I could see tears filling up in her eyes and I knew we had found a strong reason to help regain her full health again.

The good news is that Jane has made a full recovery and is now back refereeing because of one simple reason. She associated a compelling WHY that inspired her to show up each week to do the work because she knew it was too important to leave to motivation.

Take The Emotional Journey Into Yourself

I’ve worked with many other similar people and the common theme throughout is helping them to uncover their WHY well before they act.

I’m not saying motivation doesn’t exist or there isn’t a place for it. Based on my experience, a powerful WHY trumps motivation every time because motivation is like a fuse and burns out quickly.

Typically, I will also help my clients establish sound habits to support their goals and draw their awareness to the change cycle.

Motivation alone doesn’t guarantee results, nor can you rely on it because it comes and goes.

Everyone is motivated at the beginning of a new habit, goal or project, yet six months later the individual is unmotivated. This is when life gets in the way or when unexpected challenges arise.

In Jane’s case, four weeks out from her fitness test to qualify as a referee, she developed inflammation in her knee which required scaling back her training program.

Most people would give up, however Jane realised the goal was too important because her WHY meant more to her than the short term setback of an injured knee.

Thankfully, she managed the injury through a refined exercise program instead of giving up.

I appreciate the schools of thought that say: grit, resiliency and a growth mindset is paramount to achieving your goals.

Whilst I agree, if you do not have a convincing WHY, it is unlikely you will achieve success based on these principles alone.

Ask yourself the following questions before undertaking a goal or project to get clear on your primary motivation:

Why is this goal/project important to me?

What will it mean if I achieve this goal/project?

Will I be fulfilled if I achieve this goal/project?

In relation to the first question, when you have answered it, continue asking WHY until you reach an emotional point where you experience tears or are moved by your answer.

This process must be an emotional journey into yourself because you are trying to tap into the limbic brain.

Only then you will discover the real reason you are pursuing a specific goal or action.

After all, if you don’t understand the reason behind your motivation, what use is the goal to you when it is achieved?



Source by Tony Fahkry

Cleaning Business Profits, Earnings and Salaries – How Much Money Can You Make?

The cleaning business, while not the most glamorous of industries is nevertheless a fast growing multi-billion dollar business in the US and offers entrepreneurs unique opportunities to profit and earn a ‘six figure’ annual salary.

Let’s examine the cleaning industry and look at how much money it is possible to earn and what it takes to get to the ‘six figure’ level.

How much Money can you make Cleaning?

Most small cleaning business owners who work at it full-time as sole operators in their first year are able to earn between $20,000 and $30,000. Once they are able to take on employee, build up some local reputation and get good systems in place then a $100,000 annual income is not unrealistic and much more is possible for those who put in the effort.

What Separates the ‘Six Figure’ Operators from the Rest?

Here are ten factors to consider that typically separate the high income earners from the rest –

1) Different cleaning niche markets offer different opportunities. In some cities and states in can be easier to make it in the office cleaning sector and in other areas the carpet cleaning sector is more lucrative. It all depends on local demand and how many companies are catering to that demand.

2) Start building your brand right from the start and view it as your company’s most valuable asset.

3) Develop and refine systems that make sure that your business runs smoothly. Constantly look into ways of increasing the productivity of your cleaning crews.

4) Realize the importance of having a great sales system. Focus your efforts on converting an increasing number of leads into customers.

5) Up-sell your clients with services related to cleaning, premium services or more frequent service.

6) To scale up to the ‘six figure’ level you must learn how to hire, train and organize teams of workers to do the cleaning while you focus on running the business.

7) Learn how to run successful advertising campaigns and learn about modern marketing methods such as networking, cross promotions with related businesses and ‘word of mouth’ marketing.

8) Value your customers. Treat them as individuals and frequently remind them how much you appreciate their business. Satisfied customers can lead to referrals, and acquiring customers through this method is free.

9) Have the right attitude. People sometimes stereotype cleaners in a negative way. There is nothing wrong with being a cleaner for a living but you should view yourself as a businessman or woman first and foremost.

10) Research and learn continuously. Educating yourself about the cleaning business and business management in general doesn’t stop once you set up your company.

Could you start a successful cleaning business and earn over $100,000 a year?



Source by Steven Sutherland

Technical Writing – How to Write Project Justification Documents

As part of building the overall project scope a technical author will first need to lay out the justification documentation. This document which can also be considered a “business case” lays out the fundamental reasons for implementing the project. Here’s a simple guide on creating a project justification.

State the Problem

Businesses don’t carry out projects for fun; they perform them in order to solve a specific issue or issues. You need to describe the problem clearly and accurately at the start of your document so that you can then present the solution to that problem.

For example if you intend to implement a new HRMS (Human Resource Management System) your problem may be; “The HR team currently spends nearly 80% of its time on non-productive administrative tasks, reducing the effectiveness of the function dramatically.”

State the Solution

This should be a simple statement to define your project. This enables your reader to understand what it is you’re proposing.

“We intend to implement an automated HRMS system to reduce manual administration by half.”

Supply Supporting Information

The problem and solution aren’t going to justify your project to the stakeholders and decision makers, so you need to provide the right level of information to enable them to support your recommendation.

Examples of the kind of information you should use:

  • Market Demand – Not always the strongest argument, but if you can show that all your competitors are implementing similar systems, it certainly suggests that it may be worth considering in your organisation.
  • Business Need – In this example the business need is clear, the HR team are spending the majority of their work time on non-specialist tasks and that costs money.
  • Customer Demands – what is it that your customers are screaming out for? Don’t forget to include internal customers as well as external ones.
  • Technological Progression – what’s going on in the world around you, is there are compelling case to be told in terms of the way IT and systems are developing?
  • Legal – Don’t forget the all important obligation to the law, if you can show that your project brings compliance or makes it easier to comply with those requirements you have a stronger case.

Writing a business case or project justification is an essential part of the larger project scoping process. Ideally you should write this early in the lifecycle of your project to help you obtain funding and support. You will also then be able to clearly identify the objectives of your task so that team members have a clear message to take away.



Source by Nick Kellingley

The Importance of Fire Drills

Fire drills allow employees to practice exiting the workplace in the event of an emergency. A practiced exit plan will allow everyone to respond quickly, calmly, and safely in the event of a real emergency. Periodic drills may also be necessary as a part of your insurance coverage.

Fire Drill Objectives

The main objective of your fire drill should be to get everyone out efficiently and safely in the event of an emergency but, as a part of that, your objectives should include:

– Giving employees an opportunity to practice emergency procedures in a simulated environment

– Assessing whether employees can carry out assigned emergency duties

– Understanding whether the evacuation procedures were effective

– Considering any changes or adjustments to improve performance

– Complying with any fire code or insurance requirements

Frequency

How often you hold fire drills should be determined by your local fire code and your workplace fire hazards. If your workplace presents serious fire hazards (eg. flammable materials) or complex exit procedures (eg. a high-rise building), fire drills should be conducted more frequently. For these types of workplaces, fire drills scheduled every three months may be appropriate, whereas other workplaces may only need drills every six months.

Announced vs. Unannounced

Employees prefer announced drills so that they can plan for the event and minimize disruption to their work, but unannounced drills provide a more accurate representation of evacuation readiness. The type of drill may also depend on your purpose for the event. For example, an announced drill may be preferred if you are introducing a new evacuation procedure. If employees are learning a new procedure, a scheduled drill will enable them to learn more effectively. However, since emergency situations are never planned, you also want to use unannounced drills to see how people will react and to make sure everyone can exit efficiently and safely.

Evaluation

Your safety team should debrief after each fire drill to assess how it went and whether any changes to procedures or roles are needed. They should consider things such as:

– Did the fire alarm go off?

– Did all employees hear the alarm?

– Did all employees evacuate?

– Did employees shut down equipment before they evacuated?

– Did fire doors release?

– Did the designated employees carry out their safety duties?

– Did employees follow evacuation routes?

– Were evacuation routes clear?

– Did any employees need assistance?

– Did employees go to assembly areas after they exited?

– Was everyone accounted for?

Using these questions, you can identify the strengths and weaknesses of your evacuation plan and make improvements. These are a critical part of workplace safety and can help protect employees from not only fire but also other situations that require a quick exit from the workplace such as power outages.



Source by Dwayne S Tomkewich

Configure Exchange E-Mail Server Reverse DNS and MX Records Correctly

If DNS is setup incorrectly, over time your mail server IP will be added to blacklists. Nowadays most E-Mail servers have some kind of spam protection service which in turn means that all your inbound mail will be blocked if you do happen to be listed on a spam blacklist.

In this article I will describe how to correctly configure your MX and reverse DNS records for your mail server. This article is based on an Exchange 2003/2007 server but every other messaging server will follow the same principle.

Assigning an IP address

Starting from the bottom up the first thing you need to do is assign a static external IP address to the internal private address of your mail server. You will need to apply these rules on your firewall to port forward SMTP (port 25) and NAT an external IP address to the internal address of the server.

Something that a lot of administrators forget to do or check is to set the outgoing NAT rule to use the same external IP address created for the inbound rule to the mail server. If this isn’t set, Reverse DNS will not match and in turn your mail server will be listed on blacklists. If your firewall rules are setup correctly the IP address listed on this page should be the same IP address you mapped to the internal private IP address of the mail server.

Create the MX records for your mail server

For the purpose of this example, listed below are all the details of my mail server to help you understand what you need to do.

External IP: 87.22.1.22

E-Mail Domain: domain.com

You will need to be an administrative contact for your External DNS provider for your domain to make these changes. In most cases this can be done through an online control panel through your DNS provider. Failing that on the phone or via E-Mail.

1. The first thing we need to do is create an A record to point to the external IP address mapped on your firewall to the mail server. The host A record can be called any thing but is commonly called “mail”. In our example we will create “mail.domain.com” to point to IP address “87.22.1.22”

2. Next we will create an MX record to point to the newly created A record of our mail server.

Within your DNS control panel select “add MX record”. Make sure that the host address is the root domain name in our case “domain.com”

Set the FQDN as the A record we just created which in our case is “mail.domain.com”.

The lowest property is the most preferred but in our example we will set the priority as 10.

Use NSlookup to check DNS and MX records are applied

It can take up to 48 hours for DNS to propagate but in most cases 12-24 hours. To check our DNS entries are applied and correct we can use nslookup.

1. Open a CMD prompt and type nslookup

2. Type set type=mx

3. Type the domain name which in our case is domain.com.

In our example the output should read as follows if correctly setup:

> domain.com

Non-authoritative answer:

domain.com MX preference = 10, mail exchanger = mail.domain.com

mail.domain.com internet address = 87.22.1.22

Configure Reverse DNS

Reverse DNS is used to verify that the mail server is who it says it is. The recipients mail server will do a reverse lookup to make sure that the IP address of the mail A or host record in DNS is the same as the IP address it is communicating with. Only 1 RDNS entry can be present per IP address.

To do this you will need to contact your ISP to make this entry. You will not be able to do this in your DNS control panel unless your ISP also host your DNS and give you the functionality to add your own RDNS records.

In our case we would contact our ISP and advise that we would like to create an RDNS entry for our IP address 87.22.1.22 which would resolve too mail.domain.com.

Verify Reverse DNS

Again it can take up to 48 hours for DNS to propagate but in most cases 12-24 hours. To verify that the RDNS entries have been added and are correct do the following:

1. Open a CMD prompt.

2. Type Ping -a 87.22.1.22 (This is the external IP address for your mail server. In our case we use our external IP address stated above)

If RDNS is configured correctly the following output will be shown:

C:UsersUser>ping -a 87.22.1.22

Pinging mail.domain.com [87.22.1.22] with 32 bytes of data:

SMTP Banner

Every time a mail server establishes a connection with your mail server it shows its SMTP banner. This banner must be resolvable on the internet and best practice is to have it as your mail host/A record.

Configure SMTP banner Exchange 2003

1. Open Exchange system manager.

2. Expand your administrative group (“First administrative group” by default).

3. Expand Servers.

4. Expand YourServerName.

5. Expand Protocals container.

6. Select SMTP container.

7. On the right window, right click the Default SMTP virtual Server (Or the name you set your SMTP Server) and

select Properties.

8. Select the Delivery Tab.

9. Click the Advanced button.

10. Under the Fully-qualified domain name type mail.domain.com (The A/Host record you created in DNS for your mail server)

11. Click OK and OK again to accept the changes

Configure SMTP banner Exchange 2007/2010

1. Open the Exchange management console.

2. Select the Organisation Configuration container.

3. Select Hub Transport container.

4. On the right select the Send Connectors tab.

5. Right click your send connector and select properties.

6. On the General tab under the Set the FQDN this connector will… type the A record domain name you created. Which in our case is mail.domain.com. Click OK.

7. Under the Server Configuration container click the Hub Transport container.

8. In the Right window Select the properties of the Receive Connector under Receive Connectors tab.

9. On the General tab under the Set the FQDN this connector will… type the A record domain name you created. Which in our case is mail.domain.com. Click OK

To verify these changes we can use telnet to view the output upon establishing a connection on port 25 to our mail server. Use the following steps to do this:

1. Open a CMD prompt

2. Type Telnet mail.domain.com 25.

The output you see should look something like this and contain your A record of your mail server:

220 mail.domain.com Microsoft ESMTP MAIL Service ready at Sun, 28 Feb 2

010 17:51:20 +0000

If you use an edge server or a SPAM filter appliance like a Barracuda the SMTP banner will have to be set on this device/server.

Check to see if your mail server is on spam lists and/or an open relay

A great website to use to check your MX records, RDNS, check if your mail server is an open relay and check to see if you are listed on spam lists is www.mxtoolbox.com. This is a great site and one to keep in your favourites.

Following these guide lines will successfully and correctly configure mail routing to and from your mail server. The next step is too secure and ensure your mail server is not an open relay. I will be writing a separate article dedicated to this in the near future.



Source by Mike S Collins

The KWP2000 Protocol in Automotive Diagnostic Applications

The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services you can accethrough the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on several transport layers such as K-line (serial) or CAN.

Transport Protocol

As KWP2000 uses messages of variable byte lengths, a transport protocol is necessary on layers with only a well defined (short) message length, such as CAN. The transport protocol splits a long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transferred over the network and reassembles those pieces to recover the original message.

KWP2000 runs on CAN on various transport protocols such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2. 0 (Volkswagen), and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports only the ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.

Diagnostic Services

The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards, and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following services:

• Diagnostic Management

• Data Transmission

• Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)

• Input/Output Control

• Remote Activation of Routine

Upload/Download and Extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.

Diagnostic Service Format

Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a Request Message, Positive Response Message, and Negative Response Message. The Request Message has the ServiceId as first byte, plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.

The Negative Response Message is usually a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as second byte, and a ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to an EscapeCode service; here, the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partly defines the ResponseCodes, but there is room left for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some of the ResponseCodes, KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always assign the responses to their corresponding request.

Connect/Disconnect

KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and terminated with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services, or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must execute the TesterPresent service periodically if no other service is executed. If the TesterPresent service is missing for a certain period of time, the diagnostic session is terminated, and the ECU returns to normal operation mode.

GetSeed/Unlock

A GetSeed/Unlock mechanism may protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and not defined by the standard.You can execute the GetSeed/Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several levels of security, but the manufacturer assigns these levels to certain services.

Read/Write Memory

Use the Read/WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload/download data to certain memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three-byte quantity in KWP2000 and a five-byte quantity (four-byte address and one-byte extension) in the calibration protocols. The Upload/Download functional unit services are highly manufacturer specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a general upload/download mechanism.

Measurements

Use the ReadDataByLocal/CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data in a way similar to a DAQ list. A Local/CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are then transferred from the ECU to the tester. The transfer can be either single value or periodic, with a slow, medium, or fast transfer rate. The transfer rates are manufacturer specific; you can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is manufacturer specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single-point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

A major diagnostic feature is the readout of Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines several services that access DTCs based on their group or status.

Input/Output Control

KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. One example is redirecting ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

Remote Activation of a Routine

These services are similar to the ActionService and DiagService functions of CCP. You can invoke an ECU internal routine identified by a Local/CommonIdentifier or a memory address. Contrary to the CCP case, execution of this routine can be asynchronous; that is, there are separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult services. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

External References

For more information about the KWP2000 Standard, refer to the ISO 14230-3 standard.



Source by Amos Huang

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